Communication is a process of interpersonal interactionarising from the needs of interacting subjects and aims to meet those needs. The role and intensity of communication in modern society is constantly increasing, as the increasing amount of information becomes more intensive metabolic processes this information, an increasing number of technical means for such exchange. In addition, an increasing number of people, professional activity, which is associated with communication, i.e. with the profession type „man – man“.
In psychology there are important aspects of communication: content, purpose and means.
The content of communication is information that during the communication is passed from one living thing to another. The content of communication is much broader than in animals. People exchange with each other information representing knowledge about the world, share their experiences, abilities and skills. Human communication a lot of the subject and diverse content.
The aim of communication is what the living creatures occurs, this type of activity. In animals, it may be, for example, warning about danger. Human communication is much more. And if animals have the purpose of communication usually associated with the satisfaction of biological needs, the person they are a means of meeting the many diverse needs: social, cultural, cognitive, creative, aesthetic, needs, intellectual growth and moral development etc.
Communication is the encoding, transmission,
processing and decoding of information transmitted in the communication process. Information can be transmitted by direct bodily contact, such as tactile contact with the hands; it can convey and perceive in the distance through the senses, for example, watching another person’s movements or listening to the produced sound signals. In addition to these all of the data from nature modes of transmission of information in humans, there are other, invented – the language, literature (texts, drawings, diagrams, etc.), as well as various technical means of recording, transmission and storage of information.
Communication is verbal and nonverbal.
Nonverbal is communication without use of linguistic means, i.e. through facial expressions and gestures; the result is a tactile, visual, auditory, and olfactory images received from the other individual.
Verbal communication occurs with any language.
Most non-verbal forms of communication in humans is innate; by using them, a person seeking interaction on an emotional level, not only with their own kind but also with other living beings. Many of the higher animals (e.g., monkeys, dogs, dolphins) as well as people, have the ability of non-verbal communication with their own kind. Verbal communication is unique to humans. It has much more features than non-verbal.
Functions of communication according to the classification of L. Karpenko, are as follows:
contact – the contact between the partners in dialogue, readiness to accept and transfer information;
the information – obtaining new information;
incentive – stimulation activity partner communication, directing it to perform certain actions;
coordination and mutual orientation and coordination of joint activities;
understanding – adequate perception of the meaning of a message, understanding of the partners to each other;
the exchange of emotions – excitement partner needed emotional feelings;
building relationships – awareness of their place in the system of role and status, business and other relations of society;
influence – the change of state of the communication partner – its behavior, ideas, opinions, solutions and other things.
In the structure of communication there are three interrelated sides:
1) communication – the exchange of information between communicating individuals;
2) interactive – the interaction between communicating individuals;
3) perceptual – perceptions of partners and the establishment on this basis of mutual understanding.
When talking about communication in communication, first of all, have in mind that in the process of communication people exchange among themselves various representations, ideas, interests, feelings, etc. However, in the communication process is not simply the movement of information in a cybernetic device, and the active exchange. The main feature is that people in the process of information exchange can influence each other.
The communicative process is born on the basis of some joint activities, and exchange of knowledge, ideas, feelings, etc. presupposes that such activity is organized. In psychology there are two types of interaction: cooperation (cooperation) and competition (conflict).
So, communication is a process of interaction between people in the course of which emerge, are manifested and shaped by interpersonal relationships. Communication involves the exchange of thoughts, feelings, experiences. In the process of interpersonal communication people consciously or unconsciously affect the mental state, feelings, thoughts and actions each other. Functions of communication are very diverse, it is a decisive condition for the formation of each person as an individual, implement personal goals and satisfy some needs.Communication is the internal mechanism of joint activity of people and is an important source of information.